You are here: Home B. Sc. Molecular … Study Modules


Abbreviations: V (lecture), S (seminar), P (internship), Ü (exercise), SL (course performance), PL (examination performance), SWS (semester hours), ECTS (x + y = SL + PL), MAP (module exam)


Module 1: Physics

Module coordinator:, Tel. 0761-203-96720 / , Tel. 0761-203-5756

Transfer credits: Dr. C. Bartels / Dr. U. Parzefall

Academic staff: Lecture: alternating | Internship: Dr. C. Bartels / Dr. U. Parzefall

Recommendation: Preparatory course in mathematics prior to commencing studies (beginning of October)


  • Fundamentals of Physics (V, 1st semester, 4 SWS, 3 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Physics Laboratory for Students of the Natural Sciences (P, 1st semester, 3 SWS, 3 + 2 ECTS, SL: participation)


The final module grade accounts for 1/30 of the overall grade.



  • Mechanics and gravity
  • Heat theory and thermodynamics
  • Electromagnetism
  • Electromagnetic waves and optics
  • Quantum physics


Practical work:
Introductory experiments in error analysis | 10 experiments:

  • Simple and physical pendulums, torque
  • Sound waves
  • Counting statistics, frequency distributions, attenuation of γ-radiation
  • DC voltages and currents, resistance, measurement, Wheatstone bridge, conductivity, resistance of characteristic curves, lamps, diodes
  • AC voltage and currents, AC bridge
  • Series resonant circuit
  • Lenses and lens systems, images, lens defects
  • Structure and optical path of microscope
  • Diffraction grating spectrometer, multi-beam interference, line spectra
  • Radioactive decay


Learning objectives / skills

Practical work:

  • Students are able to independently set up, conduct and evaluate basic physical experiments.
  • Students work independently on defined physical questions, elementary experimental physical measurement techniques, and quantitative data analysis, and learn comparative techniques with simple mathematical models.
  • Students are able to assess measurement results and their relevance, and errors in the execution of experiments can be assessed and their consequences calculated.
  • In small groups, students are able to apply time management and communication techniques and are thus able to work successfully in a team.



  • Lecture (general): Modern physics textbooks
  • Practical work (general): Books on physics-based practical work, including error calculations:


Module 2: Chemistry

Module coordinators:
AC: , Inst. Anorg. U. Analyt. Chemistry, Tel. 203-6131

OC: , Albertstr. 21, Tel. 203-8709

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. H. Hillebrecht | Dr. S. Braukmüller

Academic staff:
General chemistry: Lecturers from the Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry



  • General Chemistry (1st Semester, 3 SWS, 2 + 2 ECTS, PL: written exam)
  • Organic Chemistry for pharmacists, biologists and molecular scientists (V, 2nd semester, 2 + 2 ECTS, PL: written exam)
  • Seminar for course-related practical work in organic chemistry for molecular scientists (S, 2nd semester, 2 SWS, SL: participation)
  • Course-related practical work in organic chemistry for molecular scientists (P, 2nd semester, 10 SWS, 5 ECTS, PL: oral, written and practical)


The final module grade accounts for 2/30 of the overall grade.


General Chemistry:
Students acquire knowledge of chemical behaviour and chemical reactions including the analysis of solids and solutions and are able to describe their content. Principles of kinetics, kinetic gas theory, and the structure of matter are studied, and the application of physical and chemical laws and measurement methods are practiced. In addition, collected measurement data is evaluated.

Organic chemistry for pharmacists, biologists and molecular scientists:
Students are able to explain the importance of general chemistry principles for organic chemistry, and are additionally able to categorize organic compounds into substance classes according to the functional groups they contain. Furthermore, students learn to differentiate the properties and reactivities of organic compounds and acquire general chemistry-specific knowledge about the use of important organic substances in everyday life, nature, and technology.

Practical course work in organic chemistry for molecular scientists:
Students independently conduct simple organic syntheses using techniques from preparative organic chemistry, and purify the products of synthesis using chemical and physical separation processes. Students then analyse the structure and purity of their products using spectroscopic methods.

Seminar for practical course work in organic chemistry for molecular scientists:
Students deepen their knowledge of organic compound reactivities and extend this knowledge to specific fundamental reaction mechanisms. Students will then be in a position to independently transfer these learned mechanisms to analogue synthesis problems.


C. E. Mortimer, U. Müller: Chemie, 10. Aufl., Thieme, Stuttgart, 2010, ISBN-10: 3134843102.

Hart, Craine, Hart, Hadad: Organische Chemie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, 3. Auflage (Jul. 2007). ISBN: 978-3527318018

Schmuck, Engels, Schirrmeister, Fink: Chemie für Mediziner. Pearson Studium, 1. Auflage (Sep. 2008). ISBN 978-3827372864

Molekülbaukasten: Molecular Visions Organic Inorganic Organometallic Molecular Model Kit #1 by Darling Models. Dushkin/Mcgraw-Hill (Jan 1996). ISBN: 978-0964883710


Module 3: Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Module coordinator: , Stefan-Meier-Str. 17/19, Tel. 203-5287

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. C. Meisinger



  • Biochemistry / Molecular Biology I (V, 1st semester, 5 SWS, 4 + 1 ECTS, PL: written exam)
  • Biochemistry / Molecular Biology I (P, 1st semester, 4 SWS, 3 + 2 ECTS, SL: protocols)
  • Biochemistry / Molecular Biology II (V, 2nd semester, 4 SWS, 3 + 1 ECTS, PL: written exam)
  • Biochemistry / Molecular Biology I (P, 2nd semester, 3 SWS, 2 + 1 ECTS, SL: protocols)
  • MAP (2nd semester, 3 ECTS, PL: oral exam, orientation exam)

The final module grade accounts for 4/30 of the overall grade.


Students learn the foundations of biochemistry including thermodynamic laws, enzyme kinetics, and energy metabolism. The structure and functions of the building blocks of life – amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, and lipids – are discussed. Carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleotide and alcohol metabolism are depicted along with their respective participating vitamins and trace elements. Functional carriers such as individual proteins (respiratory chain complexes, proteases, heat shock proteins, transporters), nucleic acids (DNAs and RNAs), and hormones are also presented. Genetic engineering methods are dealt with comprehensively. Biochemistry of the cell deals with cell membranes, protein traffic, the cytoskeleton, and the extracellular matrix. The course component dealing with molecular biology addresses transfer and realization of genetic information in the context of the cell cycle, chromosome dynamics, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. The regulation and integration of biochemical processes, such as the metabolism of individual food substrates, is demonstrated at the cell and organ level. Nutritional aspects including the resorption and conversion of individual foods, as well as substrate flows during hunger and food intake, are also discussed. Organ-specific functions of the liver, blood and immune system are dealt with and insights into the pathobiochemistry of congenital metabolic diseases, DNA mutations, diabetes, and prions, are provided.

Learning objectives / skills

  • Understand the principles and drivers of biochemical reactions
  • Derive the functionality of basic substances in a living cell from their molecular structures
  • Understand the mechanisms of energy production and energy conservation in metabolism
  • Understand the transfer and realization of genetic information
  • Understand the integration and regulation of metabolism
  • Classify organ-specific metabolic performance
  • Outline biochemical processes as a prerequisite for understanding pathological processes
  • Derive pharmacological applications from basic biochemical knowledge
  • Understand the theoretical basics of biochemical working methods
  • Learn and develop practical routine in basic biochemical, molecular biological, and genetic engineering skills
  • Conduct scientifically exact experiments
  • Assess experimental results in a scientifically critical manner



Löffler, Petrides, Heinrich: Biochemie und Pathobiochemie. Springer Verlag, 9. Auflage (Mai 2014). ISBN 978-3642179716


Module 4: Molecular Medicine I

Module coordinator: , Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, Tel. 203-9608

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. A. Hecht


  • Propaedeutic Course I (S, 1st semester, 2 SWS, 2 + 2 ECTS, SL: presentations, certification (Testate))
  • Propaedeutic Course II (S, 2nd semester, 2 SWS, 2 + 2 ECTS, SL: presentations, certification (Testate))


Students gain extensive knowledge of molecular cell biology through literature (self-study) and discussions with lecturers and fellow students. Basic knowledge of the specialist fields of immunology and cancer is taught using an English-language textbook. 

Learning objectives / skills

  • Students will acquire knowledge of the molecular structure of cells and be able to derive their functioning under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
  • Students will be able to understand scientific texts, analyse their content, and present such content to an auditorium in lecture form.



Alberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter: Lehrbuch der Molekularen Zellbiologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 3. Auflage (Apr. 2005), ISBN 978-3527311606

Alberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter: Molecular Biology of the Cell (ausgewählte Kapitel). Garland Science , Taylor & Francis, 5. Auflage (2008). ISBN 978-0815341116


Module 5: Molecular Medicine II

Module coordinator:, Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, Tel. 203-9608

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. A. Hecht


  • Microscopic Anatomy (P, 2nd semester, 3 SWS, 2 + 2 ECTS, SL: certification (Testate))
  • Molecular Cell Biology (P, 3rd semester, 3 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: protocols)
  • Recent developments in molecular medicine (S, 3rd semester, 2 SWS, 2 + 2 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • MAP (module 4 + 5 | 3rd semester, 3 ECTS, oral)

The final module grade accounts for 4/30 of the overall grade.


  • Building on Module 4, Molecular Medicine I, students deepen their knowledge of molecular cell biology through reading literature (self-study) and in discussion with lecturers and fellow students. Increasingly complex and specialized topics relevant to human pathological conditions are also dealt with using original English-language literature (special textbooks and reviews). On a foundation of theoretical knowledge, the practical introduction to fundamental techniques in molecular cell biology occurs by means of experimental examples taken from the lecturers own current research activities. Careful documentation and (self-) critical evaluation of results constitute essential components of practical work.


  • The course in microscopic anatomy serves to deepen and apply the knowledge gained – during anatomical lectures and self-study – of the histological properties of basic tissues (Part I), as well as the microscopic anatomy of the organs (Part II). All relevant histological specimens are presented, and the practical skills needed for recognizing and describing the specimens will be practiced during supervised microscope instruction. Practical skills, as well as theoretical knowledge, are examined during two testing periods.


  • The module, Molecular Medicine II, is completed with an oral examination based on textbook content and current publications (reviews), as well as accompanying literature related to practical training. Particular attention is paid to methodological aspects and content comprehension.

Learning objectives / skills

  • Students will expand their knowledge of the molecular structure and functioning of cells and tissues under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
  • Students will deepen their skills in understanding scientific texts, analysing content, and presenting this analysis to an auditorium in lecture form.
  • Students will learn basic methods of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein expression and purification, the cultivation and analysis of pro- and eukaryotic cells, and will be able to apply these methods in practice.
  • Students will be able to independently carry out experiments following experimental guidelines.
  • Students will be able to write an experiment protocol as well as analyse and document findings.
  • In microscopic anatomy, students will learn to describe the histological characteristics of basic tissues and the microscopic structure of organs constituted from these tissues, and additionally, will be able to derive structure-function relationships at the microscopic-anatomical level. Students will also be able to independently examine preparations under the microscope and identify and describe differential diagnoses.



Alberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter: Lehrbuch der Molekularen Zellbiologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 3. Auflage (Apr. 2005), ISBN 978-3527311606

Alberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter: Molecular Biology of the Cell (ausgewählte Kapitel). Garland Science, Taylor & Francis, 5. Auflage (2008). ISBN 978-0815341116

Weinberg: The Biology of Cancer (ausgewählte Kapitel). Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, 2. Auflage (2013). ISBN 9780815342205 

Übersichtsarbeiten in engl. Originalsprache zu aktuellen Themen der molekularen Medizin

Lüllmann-Rauch: Taschenlehrbuch Histologie. Thieme Verlag, 2. Auflage (Aug. 2006). ISBN 978-3131292421


Module 6: Physiology

Module coordinator:, Physiological Institute, Tel. 203-5175

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. B. Fakler

Practical work in vegetative physiology: , Institute of Biology 1, Tel. 203-2907



  • Physiology I (V, 3rd semester, 5 SWS, 4 ECTS, SL: participation
  • Physiology, vegetative (P, 3rd semester, 3 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Physiology II (V, 4th semester, 4 SWS, 3 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Neurophysiology (P, 3rd semester, 3 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • MAP (4th semester, 3 ECTS, oral)

The final module grade accounts for 2/30 of the overall grade.


  • Lecture: general physiology, cardiac function, circulatory function, smooth muscle physiology, blood function, respiration, kidney function, digestion, general and special endocrinology, skeletal muscle physiology, and neurophysiology
  • Practical work in neurophysiology: cardiac activity, ECG, smooth muscle neurophysiology, labyrinth, audiometry, optics, perimetry, membrane potential
  • Practical work in vegetative physiology: performance physiology, respiration, kidney function / excretion, blood function

Learning objectives / skills

  • Lecture: students will demonstrate understanding of theoretical knowledge concerning physiological content.
  • Practical work: students will acquire practical skills in the above-mentioned topics as well as transfer theoretical knowledge into practical applications, including the evaluation of experimental results.


Klinke, Pape, Silbernagel: Physiologie: Lehrbuch. Thieme Verlag, 6. Auflage (Nov. 2009). ISBN 978-3137960065

Schmidt, Lang, Heckmann: Physiologie des Menschen: mit Pathophysiologie mit Repetitorium. Springer Verlag, 31. Auflage (Dez. 2010). ISBN 978-3642016509

Speckmann, Hescheler, Köhling: Physiologie. Urban & Fischer Verlag/Elsevier GmbH 5. Auflage (Sep. 2008). ISBN 978-3437413186


Module 7: Physical Chemistry

Module coordinator: , Institute for Physical Chemistry, Albertstr. 23a, Tel. 203-6192 | , Institute for Physical Chemistry, Albertstr. 23a, Tel. 203-6183

Transfer credits: Course assistant:


  • Physical Chemistry (V, 3rd semester, 3 SWS, 2 + 3 ECTS, PL: written exam)
  • Physical Chemistry (P, 3rd / 4th semester, 4 SWS, 2 ECTS, PL: oral)

The final module grade accounts for 1/30 of the overall grade.

This final module grade is calculated on the following basis:

  • exam on lecture content: 50%;
  • practical work: 50% (2/3 for protocols, 1/3 for presentation in seminar)


  • Ideal gases, kinetic gas theory, collision values and mean free path, velocity distribution of particles in a gas, real gases
  • Energy conservation
  • First law of thermodynamics, energy conservation, enthalpy change in phase transformations and chemical reactions, calorimetry
  • Orientation of natural processes, second law of thermodynamics, entropy
  • Free enthalpy, chemical potential, chemical equilibrium
  • Phase equilibria, lowering of vapor pressure, increasing of boiling point, lowering of freezing point, osmotic pressure, distributional equilibrium
  • Reaction kinetics, reaction order and reaction mechanism, temperature dependence of rate constants, back and forth reactions, parallel reactions, subsequent reactions
  • Mass transport
  • Fundamentals of spectroscopy (absorption, emission, fluorescence), Lambert-Beer law, optical spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry, ions in aqueous solution, electrochemical equilibria, Nernst equation, electrochemical cells, pH electrode

Practical work:

  • Enzyme kinetics, ester saponification, freezing point depression, pH measurement, electrolyte conductivity, galvanic chains, fluorescence, FRET, error calculation.
  • Seminar lectures by students on various topics in physical chemistry.

Learning objectives / skills

  • Students will understand the basics of thermodynamics and be capable of applying the essential thermodynamic variables.
  • Students will learn how to work with phases, phase equilibria and phase diagrams, and will be able to describe quantitative chemical equilibria using thermodynamics.
  • Students will acquire the basics of electrolytic conductivity of equilibrium electrochemistry and will master the central concepts of kinetics (reaction order, rate constants, activation energies) and be able to analyse rate laws.
  • Students will understand the basic terms of ultraviolet-visible-, infrared- and fluorescence spectroscopy, and will be able to carry out quantitative evaluations.

Practical work:

  • Students will independently conduct experimental work using both general and spectroscopic methods of measurement in physical chemistry in the areas of thermodynamics, electrochemistry and reaction kinetics.
  • Students will improve their team competence in the practical work phase through group work and the cooperative development of scientific content. Students will also practice documentation and evaluation of experiments through the preparation of protocols.
  • Students will estimate and calculate systemic and experimental errors and will learn to discuss these critically.
  • In the accompanying seminar, students will acquire skills in giving scientific presentations and participating in and leading constructive discussions.


Atkins, P.W., Jones, L.: Chemie einfach alles. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. kGaA, 2. Auflage (September 2006), ISBN 978-3527315796


Module 8: Human Genetics and Developmental Biology

Module coordinator: , Institute of Biology I, Hauptstr. 1, Tel. 203-2917 | , Institute of Human Genetics, Breisacherstr. 33

Transfer credits: (Developmental Biology),  (Human Genetics)


  • Developmental Biology and Animal Genetics (V, 3rd semester, 2 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Developmental Biology (S, 3rd or 4th semester, 2 SWS, 2 + 1 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Developmental Biology (P, 4th semester, 2 SWS, 3 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Molecular and Human Genetics (V, 4th semester, 1 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Molecular and Human Genetics (S, 4th semester, 1 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • MAP (4th semester, 2 ECTS, PL: in writing)

The final module grade accounts for 4/30 of the overall grade.


Human genetics:

  • Clinical and molecular cytogenetics
  • Monogenic and multifactorial hereditary diseases
  • Genomic and triplet repeat diseases
  • Tumour predisposition syndromes, Knudson hypothesis
  • Epigenetic diseases
  • Linkage analysis
  • Arrays and Next Generation Sequencing

In-depth study of selected publications during the seminar

Developmental Biology

  • Lecture: This lecture series covers the embryonic development of the most important model organisms, as well as methodological approaches currently employed in developmental biology and genetics. Morphological, cellular and molecular aspects are all dealt with in the lecture series. Individual topics include basic principals in animal development, methodological approaches to developmental biology and developmental genetics, insect development, axis formation in Drosophila, early axis detection in vertebrates, gastrulation including vertebrate gastrulation and organizers, mesoderm development, differentiation and the right-left axis, organogenesis (principles, examples), gender specification, neurulation and early development of the nervous system (pattern formation and neurogenesis), neural crest and craniofacial development, development of the extremities (insects and vertebrates), stem cells, ES and EG cell technologies and cloning, and lastly, development and evolution.

To deepen lecture material, accompanying voluntary exercises are also offered (1 SWS, appointment by arrangement).


  • Practical work: During practical work, students have the opportunity to conduct experiments on lecture-related topics and to familiarize themselves with the most important model organisms (zebra fish, mouse, and chicken), as well as the methodological approaches for examining thematic areas in developmental biology. Methodological approaches used include the following: isolation and care of different embryos, microscopy (e.g. life imaging using transmitted light, fluorescence, and laser scanning microscopy), gene overexpression using mRNA and DNA injections, pharmaceutical treatment of embryos / tissues to influence signalling pathways, organ culture, and the examination of transgenic embryos. Results are documented with the aid of transmitted light, fluorescence and laser scanning microscopy and photography. A practical work protocol must be complete and is considered a component of the assessed course work (SL)


  • Seminar (in English): In this seminar, each student is required to present a journal article for discussion. Both theoretical and practical knowledge acquired during the course shall also be integrated into the discussion.


The final module grade accounts for 1/30 of the overall grade.

Learning objectives / skills
Human genetics
In this lecture series, students will learn to specify the characteristics of monogenic, multifactorial and epigenetic diseases, and will, additionally, develop an understanding of the principles of coupling analysis as well as the possibilities and limitations of cytogenetic, molecular-genetic, and genomic diagnostic and analytic techniques. Students will be introduced to human genetics as a mode of thinking and will be sensitized to identifying potential genetic causes of disease. With the aid of current exemplary publications, students will then deepen their newly-gained knowledge and present this within the context of a seminar.

Developmental Biology
Students will be able to describe the embryonic development of the most important model organisms and to explain the molecular basis of development processes including methods for their investigation. Approaches to developing scientific questions and conducting experiments within developmental biology shall also be learned. The correct handling and use of zebrafish, chicken and mouse in developmental research will be acquired and practical experience gained. Additionally, laws related to genetics and experimental embryology, as well as various manipulation techniques and methods of fluorescence microscopy will be applied and the experiments themselves then evaluated.



Schaaf, Zschocke: Basiswissen Humangenetik. Springer Verlag, 1. Auflage (Okt. 2007). ISBN 978-3540712220
Strachan, Read: Human Molecular Genetics. Taylor & Francis, 4. Auflage (Apr. 2010). ISBN 978-0815341499
Gilbert: Developmental Biology. Palgrave Macmillan, 10. Auflage (Juni 2013). ISBN 978-0-87893-978-7
Wolpert, Tickle: Principles of Development. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0199549078 oder
Wolpert, Tickle: Principles of Development. Oxford University Press, 3. Auflage (Aug. 2006). ISBN 978-0199275366


Module 9: Anatomy

Course coordinator: , Tel. 203-5086

Transfer credits: , Tel.: 203-5105


  • Anatomy II (V, 4th semester, 5 SWS, 4 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Anatomy III (V, 4th semester, 5 SWS, 4 ECTS, SL: participation)
  • Macroscopic Anatomy (S, 5th semester, 1 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: presentations)
  • Macroscopic Anatomy (P, 5th semester, 4 SWS, 4 + 3 ECTS, SL: attestation)
  • MAP (5th semester, 3 ECTS, oral)


The final module grade accounts for 4/30 of the overall grade.


  • Lecture Anatomy II: Systematic and topographical anatomy as well as the basics of microscopic anatomy and the development of the following organ systems: blood and lymphatic system, heart and vessels, endocrine organs, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract.
  • Lecture Anatomy III: Neuroanatomical methods, histology (including ultrastructure) and developmental history of the CNS; meninges, ventricles and vessels of the CNS; systematic, topographical and functional anatomy of the CNS (spinal cord, brain stem, diencephalon, telencephalon) and the sensory organs
  • Seminar: Accompanying the course, the seminars augment theoretical knowledge as well as provide explanations and details connected with both practical and exam-relevant embryological knowledge.
  • Practical work: Preparation of the organs, vessels, nerves and muscles of the entire human organism with the exception of the extremities. The preparation is carried out in group work and is divided into three sections: 1. torso wall, neck, head; 2. situs, retroperitoneal space; 3. neuroanatomy. Each section concludes with an oral examination on preparation techniques (certification).

Learning objectives / Competences
Lecture Anatomy II
Students will

  • learn both general and internal organ-related anatomical concepts and master the relevant sections of anatomical nomenclature.
  • acquire basic knowledge of all organ systems including their tasks within the organism and be able to describe functional organization.
  • be able to describe all organs in terms of their appearance, their important parts and their position in the body.
  • be able to name the basic features of microscopic structure and embryology of the internal organs.
  • be able to explain the important functions of all organs and derive the relationship between the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the organs and their function.
  • be able to describe important organ diseases and derive them from their anatomical backgrounds.
  • be able to practically apply the theoretical knowledge acquired in the lecture to the course-based preparative tasks.


Lecture Neuroanatomy
Students will

  • comprehend the basic structure and the main features of the embryological development of the central nervous system.
  • be able to describe the microscopic structure of the grey and white matter and know the main classes of the cells of the CNS including their most important morphological and functional properties.
  • be able to name the important structures of the brain and spinal cord.
  • be able to describe the neuroanatomical foundations of the important functional systems including the sensory organs.


Practical work
Students will

  • learn basic preparation techniques for presenting anatomical structures.
  • following instruction, be able to independently prepare and present muscles, joints, fascia, conduction pathways and organs in a clean manner.
  • create a complete preparation of the human body (with the exception of the extremities) in group work.
  • acquire a profound understanding of the three-dimensional topography of the human body by preparing the anatomical structures by hand.
  • be able to identify all prepared structures in the tests accompanying the course and be able to describe these structures in systematic and functional contexts.


Schünke, Schulte, Schumacher: Prometheus Lernatlas der Anatomie. 3 Bände:  Allgemeine Anatomie und Bewegungssystem (ISBN 978-3131395221), Innere Organe (ISBN 978-3131395320), Kopf, Hals und Neuroanatomie (ISBN 978-3131395429). Thieme Verlag, 2. Auflage (Sep. 2009)

Benninghoff, Drenckhahn: Anatomie: Makroskopische Anatomie, Histologie, Embryologie, Zellbiologie. 2 Bände: Zelle, Gewebe, ... Verdauungssystem, Harn- und Genitalsystem (ISBN 978-3437423420), Herz-Kreislauf-System, Lymphatisches ... Drüsen, Nervensystem, Sinnesorgane, Haut (ISBN 978-3437423512). Urban & Fischer Verlag/Elsevier GmbH, 17. Auflage (Apr. 2008)

Aumüller, Aust, Doll, Engele, Kirsch, Mense, Wurzinger: Duale Reihe: Anatomie. Thieme Verlag, 2. Auflage (Okt. 2010). ISBN 978-3131360427

Lüllmann-Rauch: Taschenlehrbuch Histologie. Thieme Verlag, 2. Auflage (Aug. 2006). ISBN 978-3131292421

Sadler: Medizinische Embryologie: Die normale menschliche Entwicklung und ihre Fehlbildungen. Thieme Verlag, 11. Auflage (Sep. 2008). ISBN 978-3134466119


Module 10: Microbiology, Virology and Immunology

Module coordinator:s, Tel. 203-6623

Credit transfers: Prof. Dr. G. Kochs



Microbiology, Immunology, Virology (V, 5th semester, 6 SWS, 4 ECTS, SL: participation)

Molecular Immunology (V, 5th semester, 2 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)

Molecular Virology (V, 5th semester, 2 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation

Molecular Microbiology, immunology (S, 5th semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: presentation

Molecular Virology (S, 5th semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: presentation)

Microbiology / Virology (P, 5th semester, 2.5 SWS, 1 ECTS, SL: participation)

Molecular Immunology (P, 5th semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: participation)

MAP (6th semester, 3 ECTS, oral)
The final module grade accounts for 3/30 of the overall grade.

The main lecture series provides basic knowledge of microbial pathogens and diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Emphasis is placed on modern diagnostics, state-of-the-art therapy, and options for prevention. A special series of lectures and seminars (only for molecular scientists) addresses the molecular basis for comprehending pathogen-host cell interactions. In central focus is an understanding of the replication strategies used by various pathogens. In addition, viral and bacterial strategies for evading host immune responses are discussed and the critical content of modern immunology presented. Special emphasis is placed on the interactions between the body and microorganisms. Further topics include autoimmune reactions and immunodeficiency and allergies. Practical work provides insights and instruction into modern diagnostic methodologies as well as basic immunological research.


Learning objectives / skills

Students will

  • be able to describe the most important infectious diseases and pathogens in humans, understand how the innate and acquired immune system works, and explain special features.
  • be able to explain common diagnostic procedures in microbiology / virology (category 2).
  • be able to evaluate vaccinations and other prophylactic measures including modern therapy options.
  • acquire detailed knowledge of the variety of replication strategies of bacteria and viruses and be able to interpret special features.
  • gain insight into the most important microbial strategies for the evasion of the host's immune response and be able to interpret special features.


Murphy, Travers, Walport: Janeway Immunologie. Spektrum akademischer Verlag, 7. Auflage (Sep. 2009). ISBN: 978-3-8274-2047-3

Kayser, Böttger, Zinkernagel, Haller, Eckert, Deplazes: Taschenlehrbuch Medizinische Mikrobiologie. Thieme-Verlag, 12. Auflage (Aug. 2010). ISBN 978-3134448122

Modrow, Falke, Schätzl, Truyen: Molekulare Virologie. Spektrum akademischer Verlag, 3. Auflage (Mai 2010). ISBN 978-3827418333


Module 11: Internship accompanying the course

Module coordinator: Prof. Dr. T. Reinheckel, Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, Tel. 203-9618

Transfer credits: Prof. Dr. T. Reinheckel

Lecturers: Working group leaders and appointed scientists

Areas of expertise:

  • Biochemistry / Molecular Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics and human genetics
  • Immunology / Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular medicine
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neurobiology
  • Neurophysiology
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology / Toxicology
  • Virology



  • Elective courses (P, 1st - 5th semester by arrangement, 26 SWS, 12 ECTS, SL: participation and written report)
  • MAP (1st - 5th semester by arrangement, 3 ECTS, oral)



Following introductory instructions, students work on current research projects of their chosen working groups. Throughout the process, students develop both basic and specific skills in methods employed to address research questions and learn to apply these methods in an increasingly independent manner. Careful documentation and (self-critical) evaluation of results are further essential focal points. Parallel to the acquisition of practical skills, theoretical familiarization with the research subject takes place through self-study of literature – as recommended by workgroup leaders – and through discussions within the workgroup itself. Course assessment includes the preparation of an internship report which employs the structure and style of a scientific thesis (i.e. a bachelor thesis in the field of molecular medicine). The scope of the report is at least 12 and at most 50 pages. Formal review of the report is carried out by the module coordinator, to whom the report must be sent by email ( A positive evaluation of the report is a prerequisite for registering for the examination. The final module exam is conducted by the working group in which the internship was completed. The 30-minute oral exam is based on current publications – reviews and original articles – in the research field of the elective subject. Particular emphasis is placed on methodological aspects and the interpretation of original data.


Learning objectives / skills

  • Students will acquire knowledge about the work processes, the legal foundations and the social interactions in a research-based biomedical working group.
  • Students will participate in the planning of scientific experiments.
  • Students will understand essential practical work steps and will carry them out in an independent manner.
  • Students will acquire the ability to independently document and analyse the data they collect.
  • Students will be able to classify and describe their results in relation to international research literature.
  • Students will acquire the ability to independently structure and write a thesis.



Depending on the subject.


Module 12: Skills oriented to the occupational field

12.1 Medical terminology (Ü, 1st semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: written exam)

Transfer credits:t, Stefan-Meier-Str. 26, Tel. 203-5048

This course introduces the origin and current use of medical terminology as used in expert discussions and in doctor-patient communication. As with all technical language, medical terminology provides a means through which specific communication purposes can be efficiently and successfully achieved. These purposes are presented within the context of research work, statistical analysis, and clinical practice. In addition, attention is drawn to the limitations of technical language in doctor-patient communication. Lastly, a basic vocabulary of terminology as well as knowledge of Latin grammar rules and their application to the composition of complex anatomical expressions is detailed and explained.

Learning objectives / skills
Students will be able to:

  • identify the purposes for which technical language is particularly effective in expert communication and for which purposes it is less effective (effective: imparting objective, context-independent knowledge, unambiguous naming of individual types of objects; less effective: opening up of new object areas to be researched)
  • indicate for which purposes technical language is particularly effective in doctor-patient communication and for which purposes it is less effective (effective: desensitization of existentially important diagnoses and prognoses, establishing a distance between the patient and their suffering; less effective: explanation of diagnosis and prognosis in a generally understandable manner, expression of the importance of a disease for the patient’s future life, and the embedding of a disease in the context of everyday life).
  • analyse statements in doctor-patient communications in relation to self-disclosure, appeal, factual and relationship functions.
  • evaluate in which paradigmatic situations the use of technical language can and should not be appropriate in doctor-patient communication.
  • translate the anatomical terms of organs and organ systems and the clinical terms for subject descriptions, colours, positions and orientations.
  • analyse clinical terms based on their word components (prefix, stem, suffix).
  • analyse complex anatomical terms from a grammatical perspective (genitive connections, noun-adjective connections, comma assignment, and apposition).


Michler, M., J. Benedum  (1972) Einführung in die Medizinische Fachsprache. Springer, Heidelberg.

Karenberg, A (2000) Fachsprache Medizin im Schnellkurs. Für Studium und Berufspraxis. Schattauer, Stuttgart.

Gadebusch-Bondio, M. (2007) Lingua medica. Lehrbuch zur medizinischen und zahnmedizinischen Terminologie. Logos, Berlin.


12.2 Scientific English (S, 3rd semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: oral)

Transfer credits: Dean of Studies



Reading and creating English-language scientific texts

Learning objectives / skills
Understand English texts; summarize content accordingly; compose English texts, e.g., create Power Point presentation for a lecture and speak and present in English

Handouts during the seminar sessions


12.3 Ethical principles of Molecular Medicine (S, 4th semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: written exam)

Transfer credits: , Stefan-Meier-Str. 26, Tel. 203-5034



This course introduces students to the ethical debates currently underway in selected intensively discussed areas of science and technology. These areas include, amongst others, stem cell research, human research, reproductive medicine, genetic diagnosis, synthetic biology, and animal experimentation. On the basis of such examples, an overview of ethical theory building, including the nature of various ethical theories (incl. utilitarianism, deontology, and hermeneutical ethics), is elucidated.

Learning objectives / skills

Students will be able to:

  • indicate which socially and philosophically influential ethical theories exist (utilitarianism, deontology, hermeneutical ethics).
  • identify which questions are typically encountered during ethical discussions in the highlighted sciences and technologies (e.g. status of the embryo, autonomy and vulnerability, selection, biosafety and biosecurity, and justifications for inflicting suffering on animals)
  • demonstrate which ethical assessments emerge in the highlighted sciences and technologies when various ethical theoretical approaches are employed.
  • verify which ethical assessments are, on the basis of specific ethical theories, well founded and which are not.
  • justify which ethical assessment they consider to be convincing in relation to certain areas of technology.

Handouts during the seminar sessions


12.4 Medical statistics (V / Ü, 6th semester, 4 SWS, 4 ECTS, SL: oral)

Transfer credits: , Albertstr. 26-28, Tel. 203-6669

The statistical methodologies and modelling techniques used to describe life processes are illustrated and applied to selected questions in clinical and experimental medicine. Emphasis is placed on performing simple statistical analyses along with their correct use and assessing the adequacy of any interpretation of statistical results. Additionally, by explaining the basic principles of experimental and observational study design and analysis, the identification of relationships between the clinical question and an associated statistical concept or method is made possible. The principles underlying a search and evaluation of the literature are also taught, and practical exercises employing a statistical software package are offered so as to clarify theoretical matters using real examples of data description and evaluation.

Learning objectives / skills
This lecture series aims to impart the ability to think and act scientifically and independently whilst working with data and statistics. Special learning goals include understanding of:

  • probability and prevalence, and disease incidence
  • conditional probabilities and risk assessment
  • the principle of statistical tests
  • study types and design aspects
  • correlation measures and regression models
  • aspects of multivariable regression models
  • methodological aspects of diagnostic tests and studies
  • forecasting models and dealing with restricted survival times
  • undertaking systematic literature search, meta-analysis, and the fundamentals of evidence-based medicine
  • relevant aspects of reporting and the critical reading of studies.



Schumacher, M./ Schulgen, G.: Methodik klinischer Studien. Methodische Grundlagen der Planung. Durchführung und Auswertung. 3. Auflage, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg 2008.

Campbell, M.J./ Machin, D./ Walters, S.J.: Medical Statistics – A Textbook for the Health Sciences. 4th ed, Wiley, England, 2007.

Altman, D.G.: Practical Statistics for Medical Research. Chapman&Hall, London 1991.

Dohoo, I. / Martin, W. / Stryhn, H.: Methods in Epidemiologic Research. ER Inc, Canada, 2012.


12.5 Introduction to bioinformatics (V / Ü, 6th semester, 2 SWS, 2 ECTS, SL: oral)

Transfer credits: , Tel. 203-8365


In bioinformatics, central focus lies on computer-aided analysis of genomes and protein structures. The following are dealt with in detail:

  • nucleic acids: regulatory elements, gene structure, and polymorphisms
  • proteins: domain structure, functional motifs, and chemical properties
  • databases and methods of sequence comparison
  • phylogenetic relationships
  • cellular networks and metabolic pathways



Learning objectives / skills

The student will understand:

  • the basic data structures of nucleic acid and protein databases.
  • principal bioinformatic processing operations.

The student is able to:

  • use appropriate databases to identify disease references in sequence data.
  • perform sequence analyses of protein and DNA independently and derive, understand, and critically evaluate similarity relationships between genes, proteins and protein domains.



Hansen, A.: Bioinformatik: Ein Leitfaden für Naturwissenschaftler. Springer 2004. 156 Seiten.

Mount, D.W.: Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis. 2. Auflage. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press 2004. 692 Seiten.


Additional: Courses at the Center for Key Qualifications (Zentrum für Schlüsselqualifikationen (ZfS)) of the Albert-Ludwigs-University in areas of management, foreign languages, communication, media or EDP (semesters 1-6), 8 ECTS


Module 13: Bachelor thesis and final colloquium

Supervisors: Entitled examiners (university lecturers, private lecturers and academic staff who have been given the right to administer examinations)

Bachelor thesis: 6th semester, 3 months, 12 ECTS (weight 4/5)

Final colloquium: 6th semester, 3 ECTS (weight 1/5)

Working under the guidance of experienced scientists within scientific working groups, bachelor's students conduct research into questions from either the field of basic molecular medicine or application-oriented research. As well as learning the special methods needed for dealing with the question of their bachelor's thesis – including applying them under supervision – students are also required to engage in the conception of experiments or studies (sequence of work steps, inclusion of control groups or control experiments, statistical planning), the documentation, presentation and interpretation of the collected data, as well as the oral and written presentation of data. This practical work takes up to 6 weeks, after which the results are summarized in written form for the bachelor thesis. This corresponds to the formal criteria of a scientific work in the life sciences (see appendix). In both the practical and the written part of the bachelor’s thesis, emphasis is placed on compliance with the rules of good scientific practice and scientific honesty.

The final module grade accounts for 6/30 of the overall grade.

General provisions
The bachelor thesis is an examination paper in which the candidate should demonstrate his or her ability to work to a time limit on a B.Sc. program-relevant subject using scientific methods.

The bachelor thesis is preferably written in the working group of the course-related internship. Students should make efforts – at least 6-8 weeks before starting work – to find a working group in which they can complete the work. The application for admission must be submitted to the Dean's Office of Study (Studienkanat) no later than 2 weeks before starting work.


  • Enrolled in the B.Sc. Molecular medicine
  • Successful orientation test (final module examination in biochemistry)
  • At least 135 ECTS points


  • Processing time and submission: 3 months (12 ECTS points); extension in individual cases by max. 2 weeks
  • Written in German or English
  • The final colloquium must be passed (typically open to all university staff and students) (3 ECTS points)
  • The theme can only be returned once and only within the first 2 weeks of the processing period
  • Submission to the examination office of two bound copies, in typed form, and one in digital form
  • Written assurance that the work was completed alone and without illicit assistance
  • Statement of agreement